Functional properties of polymer composite materials based on polypropylene, carbon nanotubes and silver nanoparticles for transportation systems
Keywords:carbon nanotubes, mechanical strength, percolation, polypropylene, silver nanoparticles.
Due to its unique characteristics, the creation of polymer nanocomposite materials opens wide prospects for their use in
transportation systems. The influence of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and silver nanoparticles (SN) on the functional properties of
polymer composites based on polypropylene (PP) was studied using the methods of impedance spectroscopy, differential
scanning calorimetry, and mechanical analysis. It is shown that the introduction of nanofillers leads to a decrease in the degree
of crystallinity and the melting temperature of polypropylene-based systems, which is a consequence of the destruction or
increase in the defectivity of the crystalline structure of the polymer matrix under the influence of inorganic nanoparticles. Due
to a more developed surface, SN have a greater influence, compared to CNT, on the thermophysical characteristics of the studied
materials. At a filler content of 0.5 %, the crystallinity of unfilled PP, which is 72.1 %, decreases to 64.7 % in the case of CNT
filling and to 53.4 % in the case of SN filling. An extreme change in the electrical conductivity of polymer composites is observed,
which is a consequence of the formation of a percolation cluster in the polymer matrix, a mesh of filler that permeates the entire
volume of the material. The maximum electrical conductivity is observed at a filler content of 2 %. For the PP-СNT system, the
maximum electrical conductivity is 10-5 S/cm, and for the PP-SN system, it is 10-9 S/cm. An extreme change in the electrical
conductivity of polymer composites is observed, which is a consequence of the formation of a percolation cluster in the polymer matrix, a network of filler that permeates the entire volume of the material. As a result of conducted studies of electrical conductivity, the percolation threshold was determined, which for these systems filled with CNT is 0.5 %, and for systems containing SN is 0.82 %. An increase in mechanical strength was recorded, which for PP-CNT systems increases by
approximately 50 %, and for PP-SN systems by about 30 %. The obtained properties make the studied materials promising for
use in transportation systems.
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